Below is a summary of the problems addressed, the solution, and the accomplishments and products. Problems Addressed: Researchers and public health officials frequently rely on the cause of death information made available from the coding and processing of death certificate data for critical programmatic, policy, and research needs.
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Strengthening the Data Infrastructure for Outcomes Research on Mortality Associated with Opioid Poisonings: Final Report
CODI PPRL Goodness of Fit Analysis Report
This report summarizes the results of the evaluation conducted on different PPRL packages to identify the best fit for CODI. Included in the evaluation are the open source anonlink and the R PPRL package, as well as a commercial product called CURL (Colorado University Record Linkage), developed by the University of Colorado.
CODI Data Architecture Gaps Analyses and Recommendations
The product summaries include findings from three gaps analyses: CODI data needs, CODI query architecture, and differences between the VDW and CDM models. Recommendations are also provided on how to address the identified gaps.
Advancing Primary Prevention in Human Services: Key Considerations for Administrators and Practitioners
This brief presents considerations for program administrators and other practitioners around increasing the use of primary prevention in human services systems to shift from responding to families after they are in crisis to preventing the crisis before it occurs.
Advancing Primary Prevention in Human Services: Key Considerations for Policy Designers and Funding Partners
This brief provides key considerations for policy designers and funding partners—such as federal staff, technical experts, and philanthropic partners—on incorporating primary prevention into human services delivery.
Advancing Primary Prevention in Human Services: Opportunities for People with Lived Experience
This brief highlights a new way of delivering primary prevention services that promotes equity by relying on the guidance and leadership of people with lived experience. The policy designers and service providers behind prevention services should have lived experience and/or co-create these services with people who do.
Bridging the Patient-Center Outcome Research Infrastructure and Technology
The goal of this project was to strengthen the coordinated registry network as a real-world data source for high quality, relevant, reliable, timely and actionable evidence to improve patient outcomes of medical devices, specifically for technologies affecting women’s health.
Medicare Advantage Overview: A Primer on Enrollment and Spending
Enrollment in Medicare Advantage plans has increased rapidly in recent years. The share of eligible Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in MA rose from 25% in 2010 to 47% in 2021 (27.6 million enrollees). Payments to MA plans more than doubled between 2015 and 2021 (from $175 to $361 billion), taking the share of total Medicare Parts A & B spending on MA from 38% to 54%.
Executive Order on Advancing Effective, Accountable Policing and Criminal Justice Practices to Enhance Public Trust and Public Safety
To fulfill HHS’s responsibility to understand and address social drivers of health and respond to President Biden’s Executive Order on Advancing Effective, Accountable Policing and Criminal Justice Practices to Enhance Public Trust and Public Safety, HHS conducted a review of the physical, mental, and public health impacts of law enforcement use of force and certain other police activities.
ASPE Report to Congress: Impact of Drug Shortages on Consumer Costs
TopicsHealth Policy | Drug Pricing | Out-of-Pocket Costs | Prescription Drugs
Prescription drug shortages are an ongoing concern in the United States (U.S.). While prior analyses explore the frequency of drug shortages in the U.S., little is known about the extent to which U.S. shortages impact consumer costs and healthcare systems. Drug shortages impact consumer costs in various ways.
Building the Data Capacity for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research: The 2022 Annual Report Report and Infographic
The 2022 Office of the Secretary Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund (OS PCORTF) Annual Report and infographic highlights the accomplishments of 32 multi-agency projects that supports the four goals of the new strategic plan:
Implementation of an Electonic Care Plan for People with Multiple Chronic Conditions
The purpose of this project was to develop and test a suite of electronic Care Plan (eCP) tools for adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), including an eCP implementation guide specifying data standards and value sets for key use case conditions and two open-source eCP apps (one for patients and one for clinicians).
Understanding Coverage Considerations for COVID-19 Vaccines and Treatments
Understanding Coverage Considerations for COVID-19 Vaccines and Treatments (Updated May 2023)
Training Data for Machine Learning to Enhance Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) Data Infrastructure — A Case Study in Tuberculosis Drug Resistance
Executive summary This report describes the research plan and results of a PCOR project that followed a statement of work defined in an intra-agency agreement (IAA) between the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). ASPE coordinates efforts to build data capacity for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR).
Final Report: Training Data for Machine Learning (ML) to Enhance Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) Data Infrastructure (ONC)
Executive Summary Introduction and Background The Training Data for Machine Learning to Enhance PCOR Data Infrastructure project (hereafter termed the Project) led by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) conducted foundational work to support future applications of artificial intelligence (AI), specifically focused on machine learnin
Variation Across States in Loss of Medicaid Coverage Among Pregnant Beneficiaries with Substance Use Disorders Issue Brief
Using a national Medicaid claims database, this brief estimates the number of pregnant beneficiaries with substance use disorder who lost Medicaid coverage 60 days postpartum at the national and state-level.
22nd Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors Report to Congress
TopicsCaseload Trends & Dynamics | Workforce | Family Well-Being | Administrative Data | Survey Data | Modeling & Simulation | Key Indicators | Access to Services and Benefits & Services Integration | Employment & Self-Sufficiency | Social Safety Net | Welfare, Welfare Reform, & TANF | Poverty & Income Dynamics | Poverty Measures
This report provides welfare dependence indicators through 2019 for most indicators and through 2020 for other indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in 1996.
Labor Force Trends of Recently-Arrived Refugees During the COVID-19 Pandemic
TopicsSurvey Data | Employment & Self-Sufficiency
This analysis identifies labor force trends of recently-arrived refugees, focused on the period after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Updated National Survey Trends in Telehealth Utilization and Modality (2021-2022)
TopicsCare & Service Delivery Settings | Evidence-Based Policies & Practices | Prevention | Social Determinants of Health | Telehealth & Virtual Service Delivery | Demographic Data | Survey Data | Chronic Conditions & Illnesses | COVID-19 | Health Equity | Health Insurance | Healthcare Coverage & Access | Healthcare Delivery | Preventive Services | Primary Care | Health Policy
Telehealth utilization has changed over time since the steep increase from the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. This report updates prior findings on national trends of telehealth use through an analysis using the Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey data from April 2021 through August 2022.
Optimizing Clinical Guidelines to Address Antimicrobial-Resistant Infections: A Conceptual Framework Reflecting Stakeholder Perspectives
TopicsAntibiotic Resistance | Infectious Diseases
Objectives: Clinical guidelines or guidance is an important tool for preventing and treating antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections. We sought to understand and support the effective use of guidelines and guidance for AMR infections.
Medicaid Enrollees Who are Employed: Implications for Unwinding the Medicaid Continuous Enrollment Provision
TopicsDemographic Data | Health Insurance
Many Medicaid enrollees are employed, and in 2021, 15 percent of working enrollees reported having both Medicaid and employer sponsored health coverage. The intersection between Medicaid and employment has implications for employers and others as the pandemic-related Medicaid continuous enrollment ends.
State Level Estimates of Medicaid Enrollees Currently Working and their Demographic Characteristics
ASPE has developed national and state estimates of the number of U.S. residents enrolled in Medicaid, along with data on employment, income, and demographic characteristics of those who are currently working, using the most recent Census data available from the 2021 American Community Survey (ACS).
Medicaid After Pregnancy: State-Level Implications of Extending Postpartum Coverage (2023 Update)
This brief provides an overview of the important role Medicaid plays in postpartum maternal health, reviews states’ existing pregnancy-related Medicaid eligibility limits, and assesses the projected eligibility impact if all states were to provide 12 months of postpartum Medicaid eligibility. This Issue Brief updates a previous report that was originally published in December 2021.
Participation in the U.S. Social Safety Net: Multiple Programs, 2019
Safety net programs provide critical support to people during times of economic hardship. Yet the reach and coverage of the safety net, particularly in times of increased need and among economically disadvantaged groups, is not well understood. The U.S.
Developing and Assessing the Validity of Claims-based Indicators of Frailty & Functional Disabilities in Electronic Health Records
This is the final report of an AHRQ study to address the operational gap between CFIs and EFIs. This project focused on validating an established CFI using linked claims-EHR databases of multiple large health systems. The project provides a systematic approach that health systems can use to examine the quality of the EHR data and prepare it for the application of EFI measures.
Synthetic Health Data Generation to Accelerate Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR): Final Report
The Synthetic Health Data Generation to Accelerate PCOR project was launched in 2019 by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC).
FDA User Fees: Examining Changes in Medical Product Development and Economic Benefits
This issue brief provides a primer on FDA user fees, presents findings of how user fees affect the cost of medical product development, and summarizes the research literature on user fees, most notably in expediting medical product development and approval.
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Reasons for Hesitancy Among Essential and Non-Essential Workers
TopicsWorkforce | Survey Data | COVID-19
Using 2021-2022 survey data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey, this ASPE Research Report examined sociodemographic factors and trends in vaccine hesitancy among workers based on the likelihood of exposure risk to SARS-CoV-2. We classified work setting into three categories: essential healthcare, essential non-healthcare, and non-essential.
Health Coverage Under the Affordable Care Act: Current Enrollment Trends and State Estimates
TopicsAdministrative Data | Survey Data | Health Insurance
This Issue Brief presents current estimates of enrollment in health insurance coverage obtained through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, Children's Health Insurance Program, Basic Health Program and the subsequent reductions in state-level uninsured rates since the ACA was implemented in 2014.
Inflation Reduction Act Research Series: Medicare Part D Enrollee Savings from Elimination of Vaccine Cost-Sharing
TopicsHealthy Aging | Prevention | Administrative Data | Demographic Data | Chronic Conditions & Illnesses | Health Equity | Health Insurance | Healthcare Coverage & Access | Healthcare Reform | Immunization & Vaccines | Health Policy | Healthcare Financing & Expenditures | Drug Pricing | Out-of-Pocket Costs | Prescription Drugs | Global Health & Global Health Security
Effective January 1, 2023, the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) eliminated enrollee cost-sharing for recommended vaccines covered under Medicare Part D. In 2021, 3.4 million people received vaccines under Part D, and annual out-of-pocket costs were $234 million.
2024 HHS Evaluation Plan
The Fiscal Year (FY) HHS 2024 Evaluation plan lists a total of thirty-two (32) evaluations from ten (10) Operating and Staff Divisions across the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Advancing Primary Prevention in Human Services: Convening Findings
This brief highlights key themes and ideas from a Health and Human Services (HHS) Convening on Advancing Primary Prevention in Human Services in August 2022. With a particular focus on prevention of youth and family homelessness, the convening featured the perspectives of academic experts, program administrators, federal colleagues, and people with lived expertise.
Children’s Health Coverage Trends: Gains in 2020-2022 Reverse Previous Coverage Losses
This Issue Brief examines children’s health coverage trends using the National Health Interview Survey from 2010 through the third quarter of 2022 and reviews recent research findings from the National Survey of Children's Health on children’s access to and utilization of health care services during this period, including the COVID-19 pandemic.
Factors Contributing to Reductions in Patient Wait Times at Indian Health Service Emergency Department Facilities: A Mixed-Methods Assessment
TopicsEmergency Departments | Healthcare Delivery | Primary Care
This ASPE Research Report summarizes findings about factors affecting Emergency Department wait times and Primary Care appointment scheduling intervals, and it describes strategies Indian Health Service (IHS) federal facilities have implemented associated with decreased wait times in Emergency Departments.
Implementing and Sustaining Zero Suicide: Health Care System Efforts to Prevent Suicide
Zero Suicide is a system-wide approach for health systems to improve the quality and safety of care for those at risk of suicide, with the underlying goal of preventing all suicide deaths among patients. Although evidence has indicated that Zero Suicide is effective in reducing suicide-related outcomes, little is known about how organizations fund and sustain the Zero Suicide initiative.
Health Care Transitions for Individuals Returning to the Community from a Public Institution: Promising Practices Identified by the Medicaid Reentry Stakeholder Group
This report summarizes the identified practices of the Medicaid Reentry Stakeholder Group and, as required by Section 5032 of the SUPPORT Act, informs design of a demonstration opportunity “under Section 1115 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C.
Recruiting Individuals with Lived Experience
This guide highlights questions for health and human services staff to consider and discuss as a team before recruiting individuals with lived experience, as well as key content to consider including in outreach materials. Related Products:
Strategies to Equitably Identify People with Lived Experience
This tool highlights concrete strategies that health and human services staff can use to help equitably identify people with lived experience to engage. Related Products:
What Does it Look Like to Equitably Engage People with Lived Experience?
This tool contrasts components of ideal, equitable engagements with components of inequitable engagements, which health and human services staff can use to identify opportunities to strengthen efforts to engage people with lived experience. Related Products:
What is Lived Experience?
This infographic describes key elements of lived experience in the context of health and human services work, and why engaging people with lived experience is essential to advancing equity. Related Products:
Insulin Affordability and the Inflation Reduction Act: Medicare Beneficiary Savings by State and Demographics
TopicsDiabetes | Prescription Drug Benefits | Drug Pricing
Effective January 1, 2023, out-of-pocket costs for insulin are capped at $35 per monthly prescription among Medicare Part D enrollees under the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA). A similar cap takes effect in Medicare Part B on July 1, 2023.
How Many People Participate in the Social Safety Net?
Social safety net programs provide different types of support to people facing economic hardship. This data point presents estimates of overall participation in the social safety net in 2019, the latest year of available data and presents rates of participation in multiple programs. Key Points:
How Many People that Receive One Safety Net Benefit Also Receive Others
TopicsChild Care | Child Support | Early Care & Education | Family Well-Being | Administrative Data | Survey Data | Modeling & Simulation | Health Insurance | Key Indicators | Housing-Related Services | Access to Services and Benefits & Services Integration | Social Safety Net | Welfare, Welfare Reform, & TANF
People facing economic instability often need more than one program or service. This pre-pandemic analysis looks at the reach of the social safety net, including the interaction of specific programs, to better understand program participation as the economy continues to recover. Key Points:
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Child Care Industry and Workforce
This brief explores important trends in the child care industry during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic and places those trends in a historical context. Specifically, we find:
Linking Child Welfare and Medicaid Data: Lessons Learned from Two States
This report provides information to state, tribal, and local child welfare and behavioral health agencies that are interested in linking their Medicaid and child welfare data.
Changes in Health Insurance Coverage, 2019-2021: Geographic and Demographic Patterns in the Uninsured Rate
TopicsHealthcare Coverage & Access
This Issue Brief examines the composition of the population that is uninsured and highlights changes in uninsured rates by geography and demographic factors from 2019 to 2021, during a time of significant federal policy efforts to expand coverage.
Tips on Engaging Diverse Groups of External Partners
This tip sheet provides key considerations for how organizations can identify potential diverse external partners, conduct outreach to them, and build and sustain productive relationships with them.
Guide on Advancing Equity through Quantitative Analysis
This guide explores opportunities to advance equity in quantitative analysis, including by recognizing common biases (e.g., research and measurement bias) and discussing specific quantitative methods and tools to help quantitative analyses address equity.
Tips on Equitable Communication
This tip sheet highlights the importance of using equitable communication and includes tips, guiding questions, and additional resources. The information is organized around three key strategies for equitable communication:
Guide on Advancing Equity by Incorporating Intersectionality in Research and Analysis
This guide explores intersectionality and why it is essential for advancing equity. It explores strategies for planning and conducting research with an intersectional lens, describes quantitative measures and methods to examine differences across groups of people with intersecting identities, and provides key considerations for using qualitative data to better understand intersectionality.